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History of Heraklion

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Heraklion is the largest city of Crete and one of Greece’s major urban centers. Its development begun in the wake of the 9th century AD (in antiquity, Knossos was the island’s most important centre, followed by Gortyn). In later times, Heraklion came under Arabic, Venetian and Ottoman rule; its conquerors initially gave it the nameKhandaq or Handak which was corrupted to Candia. During the 2004 Olympic Games, the city of Heraklionprovided one of the venues for the football tournament.
Among the most outstanding sights of Heraklion are the fortification walls that delimit the “old city”. The first fortifications were built by the Arabs and were later reinforced by the Venetians (15th century). From the seven bastions, only the Martinengo bastion survives to this day; there visitors will find the tomb of the renowned writer N. Kazantzakis, overlooking the city. From the four gates to the city, only Chanioporta(1570) with the characteristic winged Lion of Saint Marc and the New Gate (1587) at the southern side survive today.
In the old (Venetian) port, next to the modern facilities, one can see the vaulted tarsanades where ships used to be built, while the western side is dominated by the Koule fortress (16th century).
In the heart of the city there are many monuments dating to the Middle Ages, a period in which Heraklion witnessed great prosperity. From the port, ascending 25 Avgoustou (August) street, one reaches a square where the church of Agios Titos is found (built in 1872 at the site where a Byzantine church once stood), while next to it lies the Venetian Loggia (16th century), a magnificent, ornate arcaded Venetian building decorated with blazons, trophies, etc., which served as a meeting place for the Duke and other noblemen during the Venetian period.
A typical feature of Heraklion is its Venetian and Turkish fountains, scattered all around the city. The most famous one is the Venetian-style Μorozinifountain, also known as the Lions (1628), a landmark for local inhabitants and visitors alike. Other noteworthy Venetian fountains are the Bembo fountain (1552-1554) on Kornaros Square, the Sagredo fountain (1602-1604) built in the northwestern corner of the Loggia, andPriuli fountain (1666) located near the port. The most interesting Turkish fountains are the Charity fountain(1776), next to the Bembo fountain, which today functions as a café, the “Idomeneas fountain” (behind the Historical Museum of Crete), the “Genitsar Aga Fountain” (on Ikarou street), etc.
Among the churches of Heraklion the one that stands out is the imposing and sizeable Metropolis of Agios Minas (on Agia Ekaterini Square), built between 1862-1895. Adjacent to it, stands the chapel of Mikros Agios Minas and on the northeast is situated the church of Agia Ekaterini (16th century), which functionsas a museum housing exhibits from the Cretan Renaissance. The church of Agios Markos (13th century) towers over Venizelou Square, while other important churches in the city are the Monastery of Agios Petros and Pavlos, the Panagia Akrotiriani, the Panagia ton Stavroforon, etc.
One should not miss out on a visit to the Archaeological Museum, one of the most important museums inGreece; it contains almost all the unique treasures of the Minoan civilization unearthed at Knossos, Phaistos, Malia and other sites. Other museums that are worth visiting are the Historical Museum, the Museum of Natural History and the Acquarium “Cretaquarium” (in the area of Gournes).
In the market of Heraklion, one of the richest in the Mediterranean, visitors can find all sorts of modernproducts, as well as traditional Cretan products such the famous Cretan olive oil, raki, local wine, honey, herbs, etc. Moreover, a modern golf course both for beginners and advanced players operates not far away from the city of Heraklion (in the area of Hersonisos).

The first traces of habitation in the prefecture are placed in the Neolithic Age mainly on the south shore. Its highest point of growth is noted during the Copper Age. It is the age of Minoan civilization. This is when the first large palaces in Knossos and Phaistos are built, around which the cities are created and trade and shipping flourish.
In the 15th century B.C. the Minoan centers are destroyed by the explosion of the volcano of Thira. Activity continued; however, with a small decline. In the 11th century B.C. they invaded Doris where they were assimilated with the native inhabitants. After the 6th century B.C. the decline was evident and the prefecture exhibited no cultural growth. In 69 B.C. it became a part of the Roman province while in 395 it was taken under the control of the Byzantines. After the fall of Constantinople it was given to the Venetians. All of the prefecture then showed great economic and spiritual growth.
In 1669, it fell into the hands of the Turks, which with the heavy taxation and the continuous humiliation at the expense of the Christians subjected cruel living conditions onto the Cretans. The moment of freedom came in 1913, after struggles that lasted many years and after many revolts, with Eleftherios Venizelos as head.

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